What is the Difference Between Trees and Shrubs?

We’ve all seen trees, and we’ve all seen shrubs. Trees are generally taller and grow upward whereas shrubs remain closer to the ground and appear to grow outward. However, I was not satisfied by this simple distinction. I decided to do a little research to uncover what the real difference was between trees and shrubs. Here’s what I found:

Merriam Webster defines a tree as, “a woody perennial plant having a single, usually elongated, main stem generally with few or no branches on its lower part.” However, directly under this definition is a second that reads, “a shrub or herb of arborescent form.”

Arborescent means something that is tree-like in its appearance or growth, so this second definition essentially says that a tree includes a shrub that looks like a tree. Not very helpful, so I decided to stick with the first, “woody perennial plant” definition.

Merriam Webster defines a shrub as, “a low usually several-stemmed woody plant.” So, from these two definitions, trees and shrubs are both woody plants. However, trees are defined as being perennial, which means it is a plant that comes back every year. According to the dictionary, there is no such perennial requirement for shrubs, but this does not mean that there are no shrubs that are perennial.

The main takeaway from the distinctions of the two definitions is that trees are defined by a single elongated main stem on its lower part that has few or no branches at its base, whereas shrubs are low to the ground and contain several stems. So, trees and shrubs can be distinguished for the following: the presence of a single primary stem, number of stems, presence of branches near the base, and distance from the ground. It seems that my gut instinct was correct, but I decided to dig deeper.

I came across an article by Hamlin Tree Care that highlighted some key differences between trees and shrubs. It explained the different growth patterns between the two types of plants. Trees, it said, try to grow as tall as possible in an upward manner to try to compete with other trees for sunlight and other resources. Shrubs, the article explained, instead grow outwards to compete with neighboring plants for sunlight and other resources. In fact, the article explained that it is essential to keep in mind these different growth patterns when deciding where and when to plant shrubs.

So, there you have it. I found out that trees and shrubs are different in their appearance and growth habits. It took a little dictionary research and the help of that enlightening article for me to pick up on this subtle distinction. I must say, I am happy with the information I found because, in the future, I will be using it when I decide to plant trees and shrubs in my yard.

Read More

Your Rights When a Slip and Fall Accident Occurs on a Cruise Ship

Causes of Slip and Fall Cruise Ship Accidents

When you’re enjoying a vacation with your family, the last thing on your mind is an accident. However, slip and fall cruise ship accidents are a common reality due to corrosion from sea salt water, sea spray, and water tracked from the pool into high-traffic areas.  Some accidents are unavoidable but many accidents are a result of cruise ship negligence.

Other causes of slip and fall accidents include:

  • Overcrowding on ship
  • Not fixing damaged flooring
  • Recently mopped or waxed flooring
  • Food left on floor
  • Failure to replace or repair staircase railings
  • Poorly maintained public areas
  • Inadequate lighting
  • Slippery decks
  • Defective equipment

Victims can suffer from injuries such as sprained ankles, broken bones, and muscle tears. Such injuries can greatly impact your quality of life, so make sure you know your rights!

What Do I Do if Become Injured on a Cruise Ship?

As is common with most personal injuries cases, you must prove that you experience the injury because of negligence from the cruise ship company. This means proving your injury was a result of the improper warning, insufficient maintenance, or an intentional act.

If you are injured on a cruise ship it is important that you seek medical attention and report claim immediately. Most injury claims have a 6-month deadline, check the back of your ticket to for this and other legal information. NOTE: When purchasing the ticket, you consent to its legal claims. Failure to follow the rules on the ticket, which is essentially a legal contract, may result in a court refusal to hear the case. Passengers can challenge the location of the hearing if it is far from their home state, but those challenges aren’t usually successful.

Document as much as you can as close to the time of injury in order to retain details that may be forgotten later. Contact any witnesses present, and talk to an attorney about your injury, even if it seems minor. Take extra caution when speaking to cruise ship companies regarding your claim since they will conduct an investigation in a way that is most beneficial to them.  For example, many cruise carriers do not register in the United States, but in countries where they make port, like the Caribbean or certain South American countries. These countries will typically have more relaxed safety and labor standards. In some cases, the cruise company will require you to file a claim in a specific state, regardless of where you were injured. Because of the complex nature of maritime law, you will need an attorney that specializes in cruise ship litigation.

A cruise ship company has a responsibility to provide you with a safe and fun place to vacation. Remember as a passenger, you have rights.It is a good idea to call an experienced passenger claims attorney, such as Louis A. Vucci, P.A., when such an event occurs. You should be paid if injured and compensation should cover medical, health, and dental care as well as lost work wages. In the event of your death, your dependents are entitled to compensation.

Read More

All About DUI

All About DUI

You are driving while drunk when you are suddenly pulled over by a police officer. Before you know it, you are already arrested because of driving under the influence of alcohol. DUI is against the law, and according to the website of Kohler Hart Powell, SC, DUI charges can have severe penalties, such as jail time, fines, and probation.

Drinking and driving is dangerous, because alcohol has physical and mental effects on your body that can limit your driving capabilities. The following are some of the most common effects:

  • Drowsiness or fatigue
  • Limited control of the body
  • Poor comprehension and judgment
  • Slow reaction time

Drowsiness or fatigue can make you close your eyes, or worse, fall asleep while you are driving. Having limited control over your body means that you have limited control of your vehicle. Poor comprehension and judgment may make you fail to understand road signs. Slow reaction time may make you fail to act swiftly when something unexpected happens.

It is even worse when an innocent person has been involved and injured just because you chose to drive while drunk. But accidents, injuries, and penalties are not just the only reasons to avoid drunk driving. You should really consider how the penalties can affect your life. License suspensions due to DUI convictions may make it inconvenient for you to go to school or work. Jail times may make you lose your job. Convictions themselves may influence your future employment opportunities.

To avoid drunk driving and its ripple effects to your life, get a designated driver if you are planning on drinking. If you cannot find one, consider using public transportation, so you will not be forced to drive yourself home when you are already drunk.

Of course, authorities know that some people will still commit the offense, so law enforcement is a must. To prevent DUI, local authorities employ several tactics, such as the following:

  • Having strict laws against DUI
  • Setting up sobriety check points in strategic areas
  • Prioritizing drunk driving cases in court
  • Starting anti-drunk driving programs

It is important to point out that DUI charges can be defended to reduce penalties or dismiss the charges themselves. This is a good way to show the public that law enforcement is not absolute, and that unnecessary penalties shall not be imposed on innocent motorists.

Read More

Negative Effects of Driving Under the Influence

One form of reckless driving that can be particularly dangerous is driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Alcohol and drugs have negative effects in our bodies that may affect the way we drive. These negative effects can even lead to car accidents that do not just affect us, but also the others around us.

According to the website of a Tucson car accident attorney, drivers who are under the influence of alcohol or drugs may be held liable for their negligence, because of the danger they put on the road.


Being under the influence, a driver’s comprehension skills drop, meaning he cannot easily understand traffic signs or make rational decisions. Accidents involving lack of comprehension include traffic light violations, right of way issues, and rear-end collisions.


Alcohol and drugs have the tendency to make the driver lose focus and become drowsy. When a driver has reduced concentration, he may be involved in a variety of traffic accidents, like falling asleep while on the road resulting into a crash or rear-ending the vehicle in front of him because of his lack of attention.


Too much alcohol and drugs can affect hand-eye-foot coordination, which is an important aspect of driving. If the driver’s bodily functions do not coordinate effectively, he may be prone to a car accident. Collisions involving poor coordination include swerving or rolling over embankments, crashing into trees, veering into the opposite lanes, and colliding head-on with oncoming vehicles.

Reaction Time

Alcohol and drugs can also affect a person’s reflexes. Being able to react swiftly is an important part of safe driving, and that part is taken away more and more as alcohol and drugs kick in. A driver that is under the influence will most likely fail to adjust to unexpected circumstances on the road, especially circumstances that may have also occurred because of his comprehension, concentration, and coordination issues.


Vision is obviously one of the integral functions you need in order to drive safely. If a driver has some kind of vision impairment because of alcohol and drugs, he may be very vulnerable to car crashes. These impairments include altered reality, blurred sight, and slow eye movement. Having even just one of these impairments is enough for the driver to have comprehension, concentration, coordination, and reaction time issues.

Remember that you are not the only one on the road. If you are driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, consider the fact that you are also putting the innocent motorists around you in danger.

Read More

Hacked By Unknown

Hacked By Not Matter who am i ~ i am white Hat Hacker please update your wordpress

Hacked By white hat hacker<br />

Read More

Causes of Paralysis

The ability to move around from one place to another and engage in physical activities is something that all of us enjoy. Unfortunately, all that can end with paralysis. A 2009 study conducted by the Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation revealed that nearly 1 in 50 people live with paralysis or 5.6 million people. Stroke was the leading cause of paralysis at 29 percent, followed by spinal cord injury at 23 percent.

According to the website of Fields Disability, the economic consequences of paralysis are often devastating. Being unable to continue life as you know it forces paralysis victims to adapt, and they often need help to do it. Paralysis happens when the nerve cells or neurons that control muscle movement becomes damaged. As a result, the muscles cannot move voluntarily causing the person to be paralyzed. There are four major causes of paralysis and they are:


Stroke occurs when the supply of blood to the brain is disturbed. Like any other organ, the brain requires constant flow of blood and if that supply is restricted or stopped, the brain cells will begin to die causing brain damage. According to the study mentioned above, stroke is the leading cause of paralysis.

Head Injury

A severe head injury can tear or bruise the surface of the brain as it bumps the skull causing damage in the blood vessels and nerves. When the part of the brain that controls specific muscles is damaged during a severe head injury, paralysis occurs. Damage to the left side of the brain can paralyze the right side of the body and vice versa.

Spinal Cord Injury

The spinal cord is a part of the central nervous system. It is a thick bundle of nerves that runs from the brain to the neck and spine encased in a canal of vertebrae. It transmits signals to and from the brain and body. Any injuries in the neck or spine can cause damage to the spinal cord. As a result, the brain loses its ability to transmit signals to the various muscles resulting to paralysis.

The location of the spinal injury can have a significant effect on the severity and extent of paralysis. The higher the injury, the worse the paralysis will be. Spinal cord injury is the second leading cause of paralysis at 23 percent.

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis is caused by damage to the nerve fibers in the spinal cord by the immune system. It attacks the myelin fibers of the spinal cord, causing disruption in sending messages to and from the brain. Multiple sclerosis causes 17 percent of all paralysis.

Read More

Common Causes of Car Accidents

People often expect the big, spectacular accident to be in their narrative. It’s not so much as ego as much as it is the rational fear of that which is unfamiliar.

People fear things like bungee jumping or skydiving because it is something rather extreme and something that is typically avoidable. Sometimes, air travel is avoided for the very same reasons—giant metal vehicles in the sky can be terrifying to imagine, let alone the idea of something going wrong within the flight. These are expected fears and there is precedence for it since the awareness for these accidents and incidents are rampant with media exposure.

What people aren’t really aware of is that what can kill them are usually the things that they explicitly trust day in and day out. According to the website of the lawyers with Williams Kherkher, there are over 2 million car accidents that happen annually in the United States of America alone. The thing about car accidents is that they can happen in any number of ways. A rollover accident is just as much a car accident as a collision between two cars. The level of devastation can vary, depending on the variables with the situation.

So what are some common causes of car accidents?

  • Distracted or reckless drivers: drivers who are sleepy are easily susceptible to human error as they can make wrong turns due to their lack of sleep or even fall asleep behind the wheel. A fatigued driver is just about as dangerous as a drunk driver. Drivers who are under the influence of alcohol or drugs are also considered reckless drivers.
  • Mechanical failure: sometimes, there is an error with the vehicle that was neglected during the safety inspections and this caused failure so catastrophic while on the road that is caused injury. Although this may  not be driver’s fault, if an accident occurs they may still be negligent.

There are many reasons as to why car accidents happen by the hundreds almost every single day and most of them are due to the most common cause of all: negligence.

Practice safe and cautious driving while on the road—not just for your sake but for the sake of others too. Visit the Texas Department of Transportation for more information on car accidents and safety tips.

Read More

Going to the U.S. for the First Time, Here’s What you Need to Know

Nothing compares to the excitement and the jitteriness any first time can bring. If this is your first time to fly to another country, you will not just experience the thrill of your first-ever plane ride. You will also have to get your passport and your visa for the first time, and pack your things for an international travel for the first time. Sure it’s a lot of first times, so to help you in your first-ever trip outside your country, here are the things that you should always keep in mind:

Get all the paper works done!

When you travel abroad, including the U.S., you will need to secure a passport. Luckily, passports are generally not difficult to obtain (unless you’re living in a country full of red tapes). You only need to follow your local regulations on how to get a passport and this will just be a breeze.

However, applying for a visa is a different story! It can be difficult, even if you will just be visiting America as a tourist. For immigrants wanting to stay in the U.S. for good, a different, more stringent visa application system may apply. Individuals who are interested in moving to the U.S. for business purposes should apply for an EB-5 visa to qualify for permanent residency. However, being eligible for a EB-5 visa can be too complicated, and may also involve a substantial amount of money.

Know the culture

If you plan to go to the U.S. just to see the country or if you want to stay for good, one great advantage that you have is the knowledge of the language. However, learning about the Western way of living is still a must. Learn more about American English expressions, revisit your favorite Hollywood films, here are just some of the many things you can do learn more about American culture.

Read More

What You Need to Know About Insider Trading

Most companies these days often put a non-disclosure agreement into the pre-employment protocol in order to protect their own assets and liabilities. After all, a business can be just like a family – and nobody wants their dirty laundry out in the open for the entire world to see. However, there are somewhat more damaging consequences should this agreement be tampered with as that might constitute as insider trading.

From the phrase itself, it can be assumed that insider trading means that there is trade that came from the inside of somewhere. So what’s the big deal about insider trading?

Well, imagine a scenario that goes like this. You are a major stockholder of a certain corporation and, with inside information, you sell the stock just before its market value drops, thereby making a profit due to having access to nonpublic information.

Think of a scenario where someone wins the lottery because they rigged the machine – flesh that of scenario out and involve different variables and factors and you have the basics of an insider trading case. Sometimes, this isn’t even done with intent and just so happened to coincide with the circumstances – and if you are caught in the crossfire of an insider trading case, you need to find competent legal assistance immediately.

If the company you work for is dealing with a case of insider trading then the chances are, the company has already been investigation for quite some time. It is then imperative to make sure you are immediately represented and that your involvement is clarified in order to avoid unnecessary allegations that then put you in the line of fire against the law.

It is important to act logically and swiftly in situations like this in order to protect yourself from the possible repercussions in being associated with a case of insider trading.

Read More

What is Patent Infringement?

A patent is a legal document that ensures an inventor’s original non-artistic work is protected from being copied, used, and sold by another party. The federal law grants different types of patents to inventions that meet particular criteria. In general, these criteria can be summarized into three qualifications. The invention must be novel, nonobvious, and useful. If the applicant can prove that their invention meets these qualifications, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) will grant patent protection that lasts up to 20 years.

With a patent in places, inventors can prevent competitors from making any use of their original creation and design. Violating such protection is called patent infringement and includes any act that makes use of a protected invention in any way. This entails to the manufacturing, importing, selling, or copying of a protected work without the explicit permission of the patent holder.

Patent infringement is often a complicated issue. Litigation can quickly turn into a long and complex process. Because of nuances in the laws surrounding intellectual property, the court and jury will have plenty of factors to consider when making a definitive decision. Specific details will need to be closely investigated to see if a patent has been infringed and violated by the defendant. In most cases, patent infringement is found when elements of a patented work are present in the device or process in questions. Through intense investigation and scrutiny, the court will try to find how much these elements match one another. Still, even if these matches aren’t exact, the defendant can still be found to be in violation of a patent if the similar works are considered equivalents.

Because patent law has plenty of nuances, inventors will need to get in touch with an experienced intellectual property lawyer. As pointed out by Gagnon, Peacock & Vereeke, P.C., the litigation process for patent infringement cases can be hard to predict. Patent holders stand the best chance with effective legal counsel by their side.

Read More