A patent is a legal document that ensures an inventor’s original non-artistic work is protected from being copied, used, and sold by another party. The federal law grants different types of patents to inventions that meet particular criteria. In general, these criteria can be summarized into three qualifications. The invention must be novel, nonobvious, and useful. If the applicant can prove that their invention meets these qualifications, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) will grant patent protection that lasts up to 20 years.
With a patent in places, inventors can prevent competitors from making any use of their original creation and design. Violating such protection is called patent infringement and includes any act that makes use of a protected invention in any way. This entails to the manufacturing, importing, selling, or copying of a protected work without the explicit permission of the patent holder.
Patent infringement is often a complicated issue. Litigation can quickly turn into a long and complex process. Because of nuances in the laws surrounding intellectual property, the court and jury will have plenty of factors to consider when making a definitive decision. Specific details will need to be closely investigated to see if a patent has been infringed and violated by the defendant. In most cases, patent infringement is found when elements of a patented work are present in the device or process in questions. Through intense investigation and scrutiny, the court will try to find how much these elements match one another. Still, even if these matches aren’t exact, the defendant can still be found to be in violation of a patent if the similar works are considered equivalents.
Because patent law has plenty of nuances, inventors will need to get in touch with an experienced intellectual property lawyer. As pointed out by Gagnon, Peacock & Vereeke, P.C., the litigation process for patent infringement cases can be hard to predict. Patent holders stand the best chance with effective legal counsel by their side.
Alcohol-impaired driving has been responsible for a growing number of traffic fatalities in recent years. According to a report by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the year 2013 saw a total of 32,719 deaths related to alcohol-impaired driving. As a result, the prosecution and punishment of drunk driving violations have increasingly become more stringent. This is particularly true for a driving while intoxicated or DWI violation.
Drivers are charged with a DWI if they continue to operate vehicles when they have blood alcohol content (BAC) that goes beyond the legally mandated level. All over the United States, private drivers are not allowed on the road if they have a BAC level of 0.08 percent or higher. For drivers operating commercial vehicles, intoxication is defined as having a BAC level of 0.04 percent or higher. Of course, these legally defined blood alcohol levels aren’t the only factors in considering a driver’s level of intoxication.
Penalties for driving while intoxicated differ in every state. However, most of these penalties involve paying a significant amount of fines and spending some time in jail or prison. In Texas, for example, the website of Houston DUI lawyer Kyle Sampson points out that a DWI charge could lead to a financial penalty of up to $2,000 and 3 to 180 days in jail, among a few other consequences. On the other hand, the website of the Law Offices of Richard A. Portale, P.C. points out that New York imposes punishments that are similarly steep. At third offense, a DWI charge can result in a maximum $10,000 fine and up to 7 years in jail.
Some drivers can also experience serious impairment even before they reach or go beyond the regulated amount. Particular reactions to alcohol content differ based on several other factors, such as the driver’s weight or the amount of food take while the drink was consumed. In some cases, having as little as 0.02 percent BAC inside one’s system can lead to a decline in visual and cognitive function. While it might not lead to a DWI charge, certain state laws will still recognize that some serious traffic violation has occurred.
The U.S. economy has been notoriously unstable during the past several years. As a result, an overwhelming number of American citizens continue to find themselves deep in the throes of financial difficulties. In particular, more and more people are struggling with paying off their debts and other similar obligations. the total amount of consumer debt in the country is more than $11 trillion. This amount includes student loans, credit cards, mortgages, and auto loans that are still waiting to be paid for.
Getting out of debt can be a challenging course. For some individuals, making ends meet is already a struggle on its own. What solution is available for those who aren’t even making enough to cover their basic necessities? In situations like these, filing for Chapter 7 bankruptcy can provide the best possible solution.
According to the Bradford Law Offices, Chapter 7 bankruptcy allows debtors the opportunity to liquidate or sell their assets in order to pay back creditors. It is one of the most sought after solutions for financial difficulties because it can offer several different advantages. Filing for a Chapter 7 bankruptcy can lead to debt forgiveness, allowing individuals to discharge much of their debts in a short period of time. It also allows an individual relief from creditor harassment. Debtors will no longer have to deal with the stress that comes from constant phone calls from creditors or the threat of having property repossessed. Chapter 7 bankruptcy also allows an individual to properly rebuild their credit score.
With the help of a skilled legal representative, the process of filing for Chapter 7 bankruptcy can be easy and manageable. An applicant will be granted by the court legal bankruptcy status as long as they meet a specific set of criteria. The most important factor is decided by the means test, which will help determine if the applicant’s income falls within a specific bracket. Chapter 7 bankruptcy is meant to provide aid for individuals with the most pressing financial needs. Aside from the means test, the court will also check for a debtor’s disposable income and the amount of their typical expenses.
It’s in the nature of trends to be fleeting. However, when it comes to hair, there are two distinct trends that seem to pass the test of time quite well. Ombre and balayage are two hair color techniques that have become increasingly popular in recent years. In fact, both looks have been mainstays On red carpets and magazine covers. What makes these two styles special? We break down the top hair color trends and provide information about what look might suit you.
In French, the word “ombré” refers to “shade” or “shadow”. The term was adapted in fashion and art to describe the gradual blending of one color into another. This gradation usually moves from lighter to darker hues. Coloring your hair with an ombre effect means having darker hair color from the roots that slowly moves to a lighter shade at the ends. The lighter color is usually achieved through bleaching, although some would opt for more colorful shades like purple or pink.
Unlike ombre, balayage has a more subtle effect on hair. The technique is named after the French word for “sweeping” or “painting” and gives a more natural, sun-kissed look. By sweeping the highlight color gently on the hair, the balayage technique gives hair natural-looking accent and allows it to have more dimensions. Bleach is rarely used to achieve this look. Most stylists prefer to add accents that are just two to three shades lighter than the natural hair color.
There are several factors to consider when deciding between these two hair color trends. While you can try to achieve both looks at home through do-it-yourself kits, it’s best to consult with a professional stylist. There are hundreds of salons and hair studios that specialize in both techniques. If you are in the Houston area, you can check out Therapy Hair Studio to learn more.
Xarelto, also referred to by its generic name, Rivaroxaban, is a fairly new anticoagulant or blood thinning drug that helps reduce the risk of blood clotting in a number of medical conditions and scenario. According to the website of Williams Kherkher, the drug was first approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the year 2011 for the use hip replacement patients to reduce the chance of their developing a common blood clotting complication called deep vein thrombosis. Since then, the drug has also been approved for plenty of other uses like preventing strokes and pulmonary embolisms.
The use of Xarelto has proven to be an effective way to prevent the threat of blood clots. It has been so particularly helpful for millions of patients that its manufacturers Bayer and Johnson & Johnson have generated billions of dollars in sales revenue. However, despite the drug’s popularity, there have also been reports pointing to dangers and side effects that could potentially be harmful to patients. In fact, there have been several reports of the drug causing fatal conditions on a number of patients.
According to the website of the National Injury Law Center, Xarelto can cause a number of unwanted consequences. Some of the most alarming side effects include the following:
- Unexpected and uncontrollable bleeding
- Urine and stool discoloration
- Vomiting of blood
- Allergic reactions
- Severe headaches, fatigue, and dizziness
- Pain, swelling, and drainage in wound sites (following surgery)
- Liver failure
- Brain hemorrhage
This is particularly alarming because patients taking the drug are looking to reduce their risk of serious medical conditions. They might not be aware that the drug can also be causing unforeseen effects that could cause more irreparable harm to their health. Patients experiencing any of the above mentioned symptoms should contact their physicians and seek immediate medical attention.
The American federal government is adamant about the right of every worker to receive just compensation. Every employee is expected to receive a minimum wage of $7.25 an hour, although the amount can vary slightly depending on individual state laws. Employers are also expected to pay extra compensation for employees who render services beyond their assigned working schedules. These two clauses, which are emphasized in the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), are expected to cover majority of the workforce in America. This includes undocumented workers who may have come to the country illegally.
According to the lawyers from Cary Kane, undocumented workers are entitled to the same legal protection as any other American employee. Regardless of their immigration status, these workers are allowed to claim wages that they are legally owed. Through the clauses stated in the FLSA, even undocumented workers can file a lawsuit against employers violating wage laws for up to two years. The court will then urge these employers to provide back pay, disallowing them to bring up any immigration issues during the proceedings.
Protection for undocumented immigrant workers comes as development based on decisions made by several Circuit Courts on a few notable wage violation cases. One of these cases was reported by the Society for Human Resource Management. This case involved a lawsuit filed by nine former employees of Safe Hurricane Shutters, Inc. for unpaid overtime wages. The jury in the original trial ruled in favor of the workers, but the defendants filed an appeal in the 11th Circuit Court of Appeals. Eventually, the 11th Circuit disagreed with the defendants and upheld the original ruling. A similar scenario reported by the National Law Review involves the Supreme Court’s 2014 decision to decline reviewing a similar decision on an appeals case heard by the 8th Circuit Court, allowing it to stand.
Medical professionals use the term repetitive motion injury to refer to different types of injuries caused by prolonged and repetitive movements that cause damage to tendons, muscles, and nerves in the neck, shoulders, forearms, and hands. These movements are typically awkward, unnatural, and forceful. Repetitive motion injuries start with numbness and weakness, but the sensation will soon intensify into severe and debilitating pain. Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common repetitive motion injury caused by a pinch nerve in the hand.
According to the Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OHSA), repetitive motion injuries are one of the fastest growing workplace injuries in America. Workers expected to repetitively carry heavy loads or operate machinery are at risk, as well as employees who spend an inordinate amount of time using a computer. Other risk factors include poor posture and the use of improper techniques when taking on physically taxing jobs.
Preventing repetitive motion injuries does not take much effort. One crucial tip is making sure that proper posture is observed, especially for employees that spend a lot of time sitting down. Stretching is another important practice in preventing repetitive motion injuries. Workers who take the extra time to stretch and strengthen their muscles before carrying heavy objects can ensure that their bodies will be properly prepared for the physical stress it entails.
It’s also crucial that workers are allowed to take breaks from their repetitive tasks and be allowed to rest from their taxing activities. This is especially crucial for settings like construction sites and manufacturing plants where workers typically take on more labor intensive tasks. In this regard, employers have the responsibility to make sure that the risk repetitive motion injuries are properly mitigated in their workplaces. According to the website of Morris James LLP, employers are also expected to provide proper workers’ compensation for those who do get injured due to the nature of their tasks. According to data from the OHSA archives, an estimated 2.73 million workers’ compensation claims have been awarded to repetitive motion injury patients in the year 1993.
Unlike other forms of fishing which prioritizes financial or survival goals, the main objective of sport fishing is purely recreational. The primary reward for enthusiasts who take on such an activity is the challenge of finding and catching game. Sport fishing also involves methods and tactics that are distinctly different from commercial and food fishing. For one, virtually all sport fishing activities make use of a hook, rod, and reel to catch fish—although techniques and strategies will differ based on the type of method used.
Different anglers will use a variety of equipment depending on the area where they are fishing and the type of game they are hoping to catch. According to Southwick Associations, majority of anglers who fish in fresh water prefer to stay in land or by the docks. Meanwhile, anglers who fish in the open ocean ride power boats in order to catch game. Most enthusiasts keep fishing yachts that have been customized based on their needs by boat companies such as Mikelson Yachts.
Sport fishing is typically considered as one of the most popular recreations in America. According to data from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services, there were about 40 million officially licensed anglers during the year 2011. These enthusiasts were found to have generated over $46 billion in retail sales, as well as a total $115 billion financial impact on the country’s economy.
These overwhelming figures are responsible for keeping the recreation alive and thriving in the U.S. Without these profits, sport fishing could cause severe effects on American wildlife. As pointed out by the American Sportfishing Association, before the activity was properly regulated by the government, the growing number of anglers posed a threat to the ecosystem. This led to federal laws imposing industry taxes that now help fund conservation efforts of American fisheries.